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Youpi. Testons tous du contenu en choeur. blablabla test

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The following tables provide a comparison of computer algebra systems (CAS).[1][2][3] A CAS is a package comprising a set of algorithms for performing symbolic manipulations on algebraic objects, a language to implement them, and an environment in which to use the language.[4][5] A CAS may include a user interface and graphics capability; and to be effective may require a large library of algorithms, efficient data structures and a fast kernel.[6]

General

System Creator Development started First public release Latest stable release Cost (USD) License Notes
Axiom Tim Daly 1971 2002 02012-05-01mai 2012 Gratuit modified BSD license General purpose CAS. The first one with strong typing for mathematical expressions
CoCoA The CoCoA Team 1987 1995 02007-01-012007 (4.7.3) Gratuit GPL Specialized CAS for commutative algebra
Derive Soft Warehouse 1979 1988 02007-11-01novembre 2007 (6.1) Discontinued Proprietary CAS designed for pocket calculators; it was discontinued in 2007
Euler Math Toolbox R. Grothmann 1987 1988 02011-01-012011 (12.3) Gratuit GPL Numerical software linked to Maxima
Fermat Robert H. Lewis 1986 1993 02010-01-012010 (3.9.9x) $60 if grant money available, otherwise $0 Proprietary Specialized CAS for resultant computation and linear algebra with polynomial entries
FORM J.A.M. Vermaseren 1984 1989 4.0 Gratuit GPL CAS designed mainly for particle physics
GAP GAP Group 1986 1986 02013-01-012013 (4.6.2) Gratuit GPL Specialized CAS for group theory and combinatorics. Subpackage of Sage[7]
KANT/KASH KANT Group ? ? KASH3 (2005/2008) free for non-commercial use own license Specialized CAS for algebraic number theory
LiveMath
(formerly Theorist)
Math Monkeys ? 1991 02007-01-012007 (3.5.9) $149, $45 student (1 year) Proprietary Numerical software for interactive solving and mathematical graphing
Macaulay2 Daniel Grayson and Michael Stillman 1992 1994 02010-01-012010 (1.4) Gratuit GPL Specialized CAS for algebraic geometry and commutative algebra
Macsyma MIT Project MAC and Symbolics 1968 1978 01999-01-011999 (2.4) $500 Proprietary The oldest general purpose CAS. Was the state of the art during almost 20 years. Still alive as Maxima
Magma University of Sydney ~1990 1993 02011-01-012011 (2.17) $1,150 Proprietary General purpose CAS, originally specialized in group theory. Works with elements of algebraic structures rather than with non typed mathematical expressions
Maple Symbolic Computation Group, University of Waterloo 1980 1984 02012-01-012012 (16) $2,275 (Commercial), $2,155 (Government), $1245(Academic), $239 (Personal Edition), $99 (Student), $79 (Student, 12-Month term)[8] Proprietary One of the major general purpose CAS
Mathcad Parametric Technology Corporation 1985 1985 02010-01-012010 (15) $1,195[9] Proprietary Numerical software with some CAS capabilities
Mathematica Wolfram Research 1986 1988 02012-01-012012 (9.0.0) $2,495 (Professional), $1095 (Education), $140 (Student), $69.95 (Student annual license) [10] $295 (Personal)[11] Proprietary One of the major general purpose CAS
Mathomatic George Gesslein II 1986 1987 02012-01-012012 (16.0.5) Gratuit LGPL Elementary algebra, calculus, complex number and polynomial manipulations.
Maxima MIT Project MAC and Bill Schelter et al. 1967 1998 02012-01-012012 (5.28) Gratuit GPL General purpose CAS. Continuation of Macsyma. Subpackage of Sage.[7]
MuMATH Soft Warehouse 1970s 1980 MuMATH-83 Discontinued Proprietary Predecessor of Derive
MuPAD SciFace Software 1989 2008 02008-01-012008 (5.1) Discontinued Proprietary MathWorks has incorporated MuPAD technology into Symbolic Math Toolbox
OpenAxiom Gabriel Dos Reis 2007 2007 02011-01-012011 (1.4.1) Gratuit modified BSD license General purpose CAS, the first one to have a strong typing for mathematical objects and expressions
PARI/GP Henri Cohen, Karim Belabas, Bill Allombert et al. 1985 1990 02012-01-012012 (2.5.1) Gratuit GPL Specialized CAS for Number theory. A major reference in this domain. Subpackage of Sage.[7]
Reduce Anthony C. Hearn 1960s 1968 02009-01-012009 Gratuit modified BSD license Historically important general purpose CAS. Still alive, as open-sourced and freed in December 2008
Sage William A. Stein 2005 2005 02013-01-012013 (5.8) Gratuit GPL Mathematics software system combining a number of existing packages, including computer algebra, numerical computation, statistics and image processing
SINGULAR University of Kaiserslautern 1984 1997 02012-01-012012 (3.1.5) Gratuit GPL computer algebra system for polynomial computations, with special emphasis on commutative and non-commutative algebra, algebraic geometry, and singularity theory.
Symbolic MATLAB Toolbox MathWorks 1989 2008 02011-01-012011 (5.7(2011b)) $2900 including required MATLAB Proprietary Provides tools for solving and manipulating symbolic math expressions and performing variable-precision arithmetic.
SymbolicC++ W.-H. Steeb 1997 1997 02009-01-012009 (3.29) Gratuit GPL C++ -based
Symbolism E. Cavazos 2012 2013 2013 Gratuit modified BSD license C# library for automatic simplification of algebraic expressions
SymPy Ondřej Čertík 2006 2007 02012-01-012012 (0.7.2) Gratuit modified BSD license Python-based
TI-Nspire CAS (Computer Software) Texas Instruments 2006 2009 3.1.0.392 Proprietary Successor to Derive. Based on Derive's engine used in TI-89/Voyager 200 and TI-Nspire handheld
Wolfram Alpha Wolfram Research 2009 2012 Pro version: $4.99 / month, Pro version for students: $2.99 / month, Regular version free. Proprietary Online computer algebra system with step-by step solutions.
Xcas Bernard Parisse 2004 2008 02011-01-012011 (0.9.4) Gratuit GPL Compatible modes for maple, mupad and TI89 syntax. Symbolic spreadsheets, Giac library for use with other programs. ARM ports for some PDAs with Linux or WinCE[12]
Yacas Ayal Pinkus et al. 1998[13] ? 02012-01-012012 (1.3.3) Gratuit GPL
Creator Development started First public release Latest stable version Cost (USD) License Notes

These computer algebra systems are sometimes combined with "front end" programs that provide a nice user interface, such as the general-purpose GNU TeXmacs.

Functionality

Below is a summary of significantly developed symbolic functionality in each of the systems.

System Formula editor Arbitrary precision Calculus Solvers Graph theory Number theory Quantifier elimination Boolean algebra Tensors Probability Control theory Coding theory Group theory
Integration Integral transforms Equations Inequalities Diophantine equations Differential equations Recurrence relations
Axiom Non Oui Oui Oui Oui ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Non Oui
Magma Non Oui Non Non Oui Non Oui Non Non Oui Oui Non Non Non ? ? Oui Oui
Maple Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Non Oui Oui Oui Oui Non Non Oui Oui Oui Non Oui
Mathcad Oui Non Oui Non Oui Non Non Non Non Non Non Non Non Non Non Non Non Non
Mathematica Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui[14] Oui Oui Non Oui
Mathomatic Non Non Oui Oui Oui Non Non Non Non Non Oui Non Non Non Non Non Non Non
Symbolic MATLAB toolbox Non Oui Oui Oui Oui Non Non Oui ? Non ? Non Non Non Non ? Non Non
Maxima Non Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Non Oui Oui Oui Oui Non Oui Oui ? ? Non Oui
Sage Non Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Non Oui Oui Oui Oui Non Oui Oui Non Non Oui Oui
SymPy Non Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Non Oui Oui Non Oui Non Oui Oui Oui Non Non Oui
Wolfram Alpha Pro version only Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Non ? ? Non Oui
Yacas Non Oui Oui Non Non Non Non Non Non Non Non Non Non Non ? ? Non Non
Xcas Oui Oui Oui Non Oui Oui Non Oui Oui Non Oui Non Non Non ? ? Non ?

Operating system support

The software can run under their respective operating systems natively without emulation. Some systems must be compiled first using an appropriate compiler for the source language and target platform.

System Windows Mac OS X Linux BSD Solaris Other
Axiom Oui Oui Oui Non Non ?
CoCoA Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Tru64 UNIX, HP-UX, IRIX
Derive Oui Non Non Non Non ?
Euler Oui Non Non Non Non ?
Fermat Cygwin Oui Oui Non Non ?
FORM Cygwin Oui Oui Oui Oui ?
GAP Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui ?
KANT/KASH Oui Oui Oui Non Non Non
Macaulay2 Cygwin Oui Oui Oui Oui ?
Magma Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui ?
Maple Oui Oui Oui Non Oui Non
Mathcad Oui Non Non Non Non Non
Mathematica Oui Oui Oui Non Non Non
Mathomatic Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Android, and all POSIX platforms
Maxima Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui All POSIX platforms with Common Lisp
MuMATH Non Non Non Non Non ?
MuPAD Oui Oui Oui Non Non ?
OpenAxiom Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui ?
PARI/GP Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui ?
Reduce Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui ?
Sage Non Oui Oui Non Oui VMware image for MS-Windows users
SINGULAR Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui ?
SymbolicC++ Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui ?
Symbolic MATLAB toolbox Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui ?
SymPy Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui Any system that supports Python
TI-Nspire (desktop software) Oui Oui Non Non Non ?
Xcas Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui ?
Yacas Oui Oui Oui Oui Oui ?

Graphing calculators

Some graphing calculators have CAS features.

System Creator Development started First public release Latest stable version Cost (USD) Notes
Casio CFX-9970G CASIO Computer Co. ? 1998
Casio Algebra FX 2.0 CASIO Computer Co. ? 1999
Casio ClassPad 330
Casio ClassPad Manager
CASIO Computer Co. ? 2003 3.04.5000 $140 ClassPad Manager is an emulator which runs on a PC.
HP 49 series
HP 50g
Hewlett-Packard ? 1999 2.15 $110 and up Based on Erable. Intended for problems which occur in engineering applications. Source code openly available.
TI-89 Texas Instruments ? 1996 2.09 No longer in production
TI-89 Titanium Texas Instruments ? 2004 3.10 $150
TI-92 Texas Instruments ? 1995 ? No longer in production
TI-92 Plus Texas Instruments 1997 1998 2.09 No longer in production
TI-Nspire CAS Texas Instruments 2006 2008 3.2.0 $160
Voyage 200 Texas Instruments 2001 2002 3.10 $150
ZoomMath300 IQ Joe ? ? 1.03 $60 TI-83 and TI-84 application that adds CAS capabilities. Proprietary


See also

References

Modèle:Reflist

External links

Lists of computer algebra systems:

Other:

Modèle:Computer algebra systems

texte descriptif

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GIMP
Wilber, the GIMP mascotGimp
250px
Développeur The GIMP Development Team
Sortie {{{3}}}, Erreur: le premier paramètre ne peut être analysé comme une date ou une durée.
Version Stable 2.8 / le 2012 mai 03, il y a 10 années
Version de Preview 2.7.5 / le 2012 mars 14, il y a 10 années
Etat du développement Active
Programmé en C and GTK+
OS AmigaOS 4, FreeBSD, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, Linux, Solaris
Disponible en 77 langage(s)
Genre Raster graphics editor
Licence GNU LGPL v3+
Site Internet www.gimp.org